A Short History of Constantinople (Illustrated)
The caption tells us that Ivan Alexander is the Tsar, i. Syrku suggests that it should be read as tsvetet; when 27 M. Kaimakamova separately arrived at a conclusion about translatio imperii. Further see Kaimakamova, 31 A section of this text is briefly quoted in I. This passage has been also translated into English by Kaimakamova, ed. Kooper Amsterdam — New York: , ; M. Guillou and J. For a recent discussion of this image see E. For further discussion of the politics of the encomium by chest na prof. Manasses see A. His discussion is Constantine Manasses from Vat. See G. Velinova Athens: Militos Editions, , Constantinople contained venerable architectural spaces and potent symbols of the eternal empire, which the tsar craved to appropriate as tangible signs of his own new Rome.
Introduction There are plenty of works about Justinian in recent historiography, and even Conclusion older ones have retained their significance. The Constantinople that was manufactured in the Vatican Manasses the subject and the varied approaches to it, not to mention the strikingly different manuscript aligns closely with conceptualization of the Byzantine empire and con- borders of the Empire, each with own enemies, organization and policy.
Teall4 we can tive. For Ivan Alexander Byzantine history was literally remade. There is nothing follow the trend by W. Kaegi5 useful studies, before reaching Ch. Dagron and subtle about his claims upon the Byzantine empire; in fact, the entire manuscript G. Understanding tional light with their overall works,7 and we need to mention here the carefully and appropriating Byzantine history were integral to a comprehensive program of documented Osprey Warrior Series by S. Vasiliev, Justin the First. An Introduction to the Epoch of Justinian the Great. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, ; J.
Maas, Ed. Moorhead, Justinian, Harlow: ; J. Maas, John Lydus and the Roman Past. Kaegi, Byzantine Military Unrest An Interpretation, Amsterdam: Kolias, Byzantinische Waffen, Wien: ; D. Nicole and A.
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By Elena Boeck. By Robert S Nelson. The eastern provinces of the Eastern Roman and later the Byzantine Empires inherited a strong artistic tradition from the Late Antiquity. Christian mosaic art flourished in this area from the 4th century onwards. The tradition of making mosaics was carried on in the Umayyad era until the end of the 8th century. The first fully preserved illuminated biblical manuscripts date to the first half of the sixth century, most notably the Vienna Genesis ,  the Rossano Gospels ,  and the Sinope Gospels.
Important ivory sculptures of this period include the Barberini ivory , which probably depicts Justinian himself,  and the Archangel ivory in the British Museum.
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The Age of Justinian was followed by a political decline, since most of Justinian's conquests were lost and the Empire faced acute crisis with the invasions of the Avars , Slavs , Persians and Arabs in the 7th century. Constantinople was also wracked by religious and political conflict. The most significant surviving monumental projects of this period were undertaken outside of the imperial capital.
The Main Problems of the History of the Latin Empire of Constantinople () - Persée
The church of Hagios Demetrios in Thessaloniki was rebuilt after a fire in the mid-seventh century. The new sections include mosaics executed in a remarkably abstract style. Important works of luxury art from this period include the silver David Plates , produced during the reign of Emperor Heraclius , and depicting scenes from the life of the Hebrew king David. The period between Justinian and iconoclasm saw major changes in the social and religious roles of images within Byzantium.
The veneration of acheiropoieta , or holy images "not made by human hands," became a significant phenomenon, and in some instances these images were credited with saving cities from military assault. By the end of the seventh century, certain images of saints had come to be viewed as "windows" through which one could communicate with the figure depicted.
Proskynesis before images is also attested in texts from the late seventh century. These developments mark the beginnings of a theology of icons. At the same time, the debate over the proper role of art in the decoration of churches intensified. Three canons of the Quinisext Council of addressed controversies in this area: prohibition of the representation of the cross on church pavements Canon 73 , prohibition of the representation of Christ as a lamb Canon 82 , and a general injunction against "pictures, whether they are in paintings or in what way so ever, which attract the eye and corrupt the mind, and incite it to the enkindling of base pleasures" Canon Intense debate over the role of art in worship led eventually to the period of " Byzantine iconoclasm.
In , an underwater earthquake between the islands of Thera and Therasia was interpreted by Emperor Leo III as a sign of God's anger, and may have led Leo to remove a famous icon of Christ from the Chalke Gate outside the imperial palace.
The Council of Hieria , convened under Constantine in , proscribed the manufacture of icons of Christ. This inaugurated the Iconoclastic period , which lasted, with interruptions, until While iconoclasm severely restricted the role of religious art, and led to the removal of some earlier apse mosaics and possibly the sporadic destruction of portable icons, it never constituted a total ban on the production of figural art. Ample literary sources indicate that secular art i.
Major churches dating to this period include Hagia Eirene in Constantinople, which was rebuilt in the s following its destruction by the Constantinople earthquake.
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The interior of Hagia Eirene, which is dominated by a large mosaic cross in the apse, is one of the best-preserved examples of iconoclastic church decoration. Certain churches built outside of the empire during this period, but decorated in a figural, "Byzantine," style, may also bear witness to the continuing activities of Byzantine artists. Particularly important in this regard are the original mosaics of the Palatine Chapel in Aachen since either destroyed or heavily restored and the frescoes in the Church of Maria foris portas in Castelseprio.
The rulings of the Council of Hieria were reversed by a new church council in , celebrated to this day in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the "Triumph of Orthodoxy.
Later in the same year, the Emperor Basil I , called "the Macedonian," acceded to the throne; as a result the following period of Byzantine art has sometimes been called the " Macedonian Renaissance ", although the term is doubly problematic it was neither " Macedonian ", nor, strictly speaking, a " Renaissance ". In the 9th and 10th centuries, the Empire's military situation improved, and patronage of art and architecture increased.
New churches were commissioned, and the standard architectural form the " cross-in-square " and decorative scheme of the Middle Byzantine church were standardised. There was a revival of interest in the depiction of subjects from classical mythology as on the Veroli Casket and in the use of a "classical" style to depict religious, and particularly Old Testament, subjects of which the Paris Psalter and the Joshua Roll are important examples. The Macedonian period also saw a revival of the late antique technique of ivory carving.
Many ornate ivory triptychs and diptychs survive, such as the Harbaville Triptych and a triptych at Luton Hoo , dating from the reign of Nicephorus Phocas. The Macedonian emperors were followed by the Komnenian dynasty , beginning with the reign of Alexios I Komnenos in Byzantium had recently suffered a period of severe dislocation following the Battle of Manzikert in and the subsequent loss of Asia Minor to the Turks. However, the Komnenoi brought stability to the empire — and during the course of the twelfth century their energetic campaigning did much to restore the fortunes of the empire.